Notes on the Geography of Vietnam: Colonial Hanoi: Photo 1
There had been a city here on the banks of the Red River or Song Hong for a long time. It was called Thang Long until the mid-19th Century reign of the emperor Minh Mang, who changed it, not very imaginatively, to Ha Noi, meaning the city "within the bend of the river".
Back to Vietnam: Colonial Hanoi chapter
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