Notes on the Geography of Vietnam: Colonial Hanoi: Photo 3
The gate recalls the period, 1873 to 1888, that the historian André Masson calls Vietnam's "période héroique." The citadel, ironically, had been built in 1805 on the best European principles. The French destroyed, in short, one of Vietnam's first tangible expressions of Western Civilization.
Back to Vietnam: Colonial Hanoi chapter
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