Notes on the Geography of Vietnam: Colonial Hanoi: Photo 4
Henri Rivière launched the attack. The citadel was then returned to the Vietnamese for a time, and Rivière was killed in another attack the following year. Still, the Patenôtre (Protectorate) Treaty was signed in 1884. A decade later the French destroyed most of the citadel but left a few bits, like this one, at the urging of the Ecole française d’Extrême-Orient (EFEO), which was even then urging the preservation of what the French today might call Vietnam's "cultural patrimony."
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