Notes on the Geography of Zimbabwe: Great Zimbabwe: Photo 5
We'll start up the mountain, here zoomed from the base. The record establishes only one foreigner reaching Great Zimbabwe before Karl (or Carl) Mauch, a young German explorer in South Africa. It's 1871, and Mauch has been fired up by a missionary named Merensky, who has told Mauch that the Ophir of Solomon lies in Mashonaland.
Mauch sets out to find it and in 1871 a trader, Adam Render, who had stumbled upon the place several years earlier and who tells Mauch that, according to the natives, "white people had once lived in this country." The natives themselves tell Mauch of "large ruins which could never had been built by blacks." With Render as guide, Mauch sees Great Zimbabwe and describes it letters. (Quoted in E.E. Burke, ed., The Journals of Carl Mauch, translated by F.O. Bernhard, 1969, pp. 136f.)
Here's part of the letter Mauch wrote to August Petermann, in Germany, on September 12, 1871: "Zimbaoe, known from Portuguese writings, lies 11 English miles to the east of here and represents a mighty fortress, consisting of two parts of which one, on a hill of about 400 feet with very large boulders is separated by a narrow little valley from the second, which stands on a slight rise. Up till now it has not been possible for me to make a plan of both of them as the walls, in places still 30 feet high, are completely covered, and as dangerous nettles ill repay any attempt to creep through them. The walls are built, without any mortar, of hewn granite slabs more or less of the size of our bricks, and are, except at three points, very well preserved in a "Rondeau" on the plain of a diameter of about 150 yards. In the southern part of this there stands a tower built up to about 30 feet, at the base of a cylindrical, at the upper half of a conical shape, and in a wall in front of it there are some absolutely black stones which make me suspect that this is a burial site."
(See Burke, p. 266.)
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