Notes on the Geography of India Themes: Crafts and the Introduction of Machinery
Archaic technologies still thrive in India.
Indian laundrymen are notorious for their flogging of clothing, as here, below the Husainsagar in Hyderabad.
A mobile ironing-service, using a heavy, charcoal-heated iron in the Krishna delta, downstream of Vijayawada.
A village tailor, with a treadle-powered sewing machine.
A British introduction? Probably. A rope-making machine in Tamil Nadu twists coconut fiber into rope; the women in the background feed material into the strand.
One use for such rope: caulking is forced between ship timbers at a yard near Machilipatnam, at the mouth of the Krishna. The seams are then tarred.
An earlier stage of construction.
It is a truism that the British destroyed Indian textile handicrafts by flooding the Indian market with Manchester cloth. But the Indian market began using machine technology, too, and not just after 1947.
A vacuum cleaner working in reverse as a spray painter on a temple cart at Madurai, Tamil Nadu.
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